How to write Research paper Introduction

Can you just think of staring your research paper directly from the methodology you used to solve your research problem?  You can not simply pour your methodology, ideas, arguments without explaining  what are you writing about. Similar to a  novel or story the first  step for writing a research paper introduction  is to introduce the audience the background(survey) and the major issue  (research problem)  different roles (methods)  and the theme around which the story revolves(the proposed method).  In the introduction, you must clearly indicate the problem  you want to solve. You must explain the necessity of your work, its  significance and how your work may change the future course of research.  Your writing appeal should be such that it should  hook readers to continue reading it.   The introduction does not have a strict word limit, unlike the abstract, but it should be as concise as possible. A good introduction  explains how the  research problem  has been solved by various researchers (Literature survey)   and creates ‘leads’ to make the reader want to delve further into research domain.


An introduction has three invisible sections namely

  1. History or background of the research
  2. Survey of the relevant papers
  3. Problem formulation and methodology used to solve the problem

1.History or background of the research

An introduction is the first paragraph of a written research paper. Start your introduction with short history There can be two possibilities to start an introduction. One way  is to tell your readers was there a seminal paper, research funding, special event, invention of an algorithm which spurred the development of the field under investigation.  For example: The introduction of Big Data  gave a new impetus to  storage and analysis of huge data sets. Other option can be; the first paragraphs of your introduction should be  a historical narrative, from the very first research in the field to the current day with key statistics describing the development of the field. Here in both the cases introduce the key words of the field and  describe what the various keywords mean.

2.Survey of the relevant papers

Provide an overview of existing thinking about and/or research into your research problem. Identify a gap, problems or unresolved issues in the existing knowledge/research that your research can fill or identify a research focus that will be useful.  Here your citations  are crucial.  Try to survey  the papers  in which  the authors are authoritative in the domain of your research.

3. Problem formulation and methodology used to solve the problem

The reader, by the end of the introduction, should know exactly what research issue you are trying to  solve  with your paper. State the intent of your study, including the research question and your unique methodology to solve the problem. Describe important results that you have found or hope to find. The introduction leads the reader from a general research issue or problem to your specific area of research.  While specifying the methodology state the algorithm /the standard tool /technique which will be used for implementing the methodology.


Short Term object motion prediction in a real-life Robot navigation environment  refers to the prediction of the next instance position of a moving object based on the previous history of its motion. The living beings and vehicles characterize  the dynamic environment and exhibit motion in various directions with different  velocities. In an unmanned Robot navigation system, the Robot has to acquire the information of moving objects and predict their future positions for the next instance based on their previous history of motion in order to make efficient path planning[3][7]. The sensors available to read the position of the moving object should send accurate data in quick time succession and the Robot should process and generate the predicted position within limited time as the validity of the result is very short. Real life data often suffer from inaccurate readings due to environmental constraints, sensors, size of the objects and possible change in motion pattern of the moving objects. This needs the system to be Robust to handle these uncertainties and predict next instance object position as accurate as possible. Research literature has addressed solutions to the short term object motion predictions with different methods such as Curve fitting or Regression methods [9] [22]Neural network based approaches [1][2][5] , Hidden Markov stochastic models [23], Bayesian Occupancy Filters [6], Extended Kalman Filter[12][18] and Stochastic prediction model [21]. Based on the literature survey it is observed that i) The existing models lack flexibility in handling the uncertainties of the real life situations. ii) Probabilistic models sometimes fail to model the real life uncertainties. iii) The existing prediction techniques show poor response time due to their complex algorithmic structure. iv) Most of the approaches validate the results with simulated data or simple navigational environments. The present work overcomes these difficulties with a simple solution for short term motion prediction using fuzzy inference method. It is assumed that the Robot is instantaneously stationary and observes the moving object through vision based sensors. Position of the moving object is sampled by the Robot at two definite time intervals. With the current sampling positions, the proposed Fuzzy predictor algorithm predicts the future object’s position in the next sampling duration.The model is flexible as the navigation environment considered is fuzzy in nature. In the initial step the Fuzzy rulebase is generated by the simulator with different object motion patterns within the navigational environment. Inconsistent and redundant rules are removed by defining directional space within navigational environment. Even though the fuzzy inference rules are relatively more in number , still the response time of the predictor is very small due to the short circuit evaluation of rules[13]. Min Max , Centre of Area and Mean Of Max defuzzification techniques are used to generate crisp output to identify the suitable defuzzification technique in terms of accuracy and quick response time for the current application.The algorithm is tested on both simulated and real-life benchmark data provided by CAVIAR project[10]. The complete process of short term motion prediction is represented in Fig1.


In fact many research supervisors advise the research scholars to finish the body of the paper as a draft and then work on writing the introduction. This method is some times advantageous as it will  show a clear  flow of research carried out and a small discussion on results in introduction section which may arouse the interest of the reader to read the paper in depth. If, however,  with well defined outline  a researcher can start writing the introduction first. In this case, after completion of paper writing researcher has to check the flow of the rest of the paper and the introduction section  to keep the thread consistent throughout the paper.

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