How to Write the Methodology Section of your Dissertation or Thesis?

PhD Methodology Section


The methodology section is a crucial component of a PhD or Post Graduate dissertation. It plays a fundamental role in demonstrating the rigor and validity of the research conducted. The methodology section outlines the methods used to conduct the research and provides a clear roadmap for the reader to understand how the study was executed.

The methodology section allows researchers to explain their approach and provide the necessary details for others to reproduce or build upon their work. It is essential for establishing the credibility and scientific integrity of the research.

For example, in a dissertation focused on developing a new machine learning algorithm for image classification, the methodology section would describe the specific steps followed to design, implement, and evaluate the algorithm. It would include details such as the choice of programming languages and libraries, the dataset used for training and testing, and the evaluation metrics employed. This information allows other researchers to understand how the algorithm was developed, assess its strengths and limitations, and potentially apply it to their own work.

Similarly, in a dissertation that involves conducting experiments to evaluate the performance of a networking protocol, the methodology section would describe the experimental setup, the hardware and software used, and the metrics measured. It would explain the steps taken to control variables, ensure reproducibility, and analyze the collected data. By documenting the methodology, researchers can provide a clear understanding of how the experiments were conducted, enabling others to validate the results or compare them with alternative approaches.

In both examples, the methodology section serves as a foundation for the research and establishes its scientific validity. It allows researchers to communicate the methods used, justify their choices, and provide the necessary details for others to assess and build upon their work.

By outlining the methodology, researchers can demonstrate their expertise, attention to detail, and adherence to scientific principles. This section also serves as a reference for future researchers who may want to replicate or extend the study. The methodology section is essential for ensuring the transparency, reproducibility, and credibility of research in computer science and contributes to the advancement of knowledge in the field.

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Role of Research Design in Methodology Section

For any research domain, various research designs can be employed, depending on the nature of the study and the research goals. The choice of research design should align with the specific objectives of the research and the type of data being collected. Here are some examples of research designs commonly used:

  1. Quantitative Research Design: Quantitative research designs focus on collecting and analyzing numerical data to identify patterns, trends, and relationships. This can involve conducting experiments, surveys, or analyzing large datasets. For instance, a study aiming to evaluate the performance of different caching algorithms in a web server environment may use a quantitative design. The researcher could collect data on response times, cache hit rates, and system resource usage to compare the performance of the algorithms quantitatively.
  2. Qualitative Research Design: Qualitative research designs emphasize understanding and interpreting complex phenomena, often through in-depth interviews, observations, or case studies. Qualitative research can be employed to explore user experiences, perceptions, or challenges related to software systems or human-computer interaction. For example, a study investigating user satisfaction and feedback regarding a new mobile application could use qualitative research methods to collect and analyze user interviews or focus group discussions.
  3. Mixed Methods Research Design: Mixed methods research designs combine elements of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. This design allows researchers to gather a comprehensive understanding of a research problem by leveraging the strengths of both types of data. A mixed methods approach can be useful when seeking to explore user behavior (qualitative) and simultaneously collect and analyze usage data (quantitative). For instance, a study on the effectiveness of a learning management system might involve administering surveys to gather user perceptions (qualitative) while also tracking user interactions and performance within the system (quantitative).

When choosing a research design, researchers should consider the specific research goals and the type of data that will provide the most relevant insights. The rationale for selecting a particular design should be based on the strengths of that approach in addressing the research questions or objectives. It is important to justify the chosen design by explaining how it aligns with the research goals and allows for a comprehensive investigation of the phenomenon under study.

For example, in a Ph.D. dissertation focused on developing a new algorithm for sentiment analysis in social media data, a mixed methods research design might be appropriate. The qualitative component could involve analyzing a smaller subset of data manually to gain insights into the nuances and context of sentiment expressions. The quantitative component could involve applying the developed algorithm to a large dataset to measure its performance objectively. The rationale for choosing a mixed methods design would be to combine the benefits of qualitative analysis for understanding the complexities of sentiment expressions with the quantitative analysis for evaluating the algorithm’s accuracy and efficiency.

By selecting an appropriate research design and justifying its suitability, researchers can ensure that their study is well-aligned with their research goals and has the potential to yield valuable and valid findings.

How to Represent Participants or Sample data in the Methodology Section?

In research, the participants or sample refers to the individuals, organizations, or data sources from which the researcher collects data. The characteristics of the study participants or sample are important to consider, as they can influence the generalizability and applicability of the research findings. Here are some examples of considerations for participants or samples in research:

  1. Characteristics of Participants: Describe the relevant characteristics of the participants in your study. In computer science, participants can include users of a software system, developers, IT professionals, or other stakeholders. For example, if you are conducting a study on the usability of a mobile application, you might describe the age range, technical expertise, or familiarity with similar applications of the participants.
  2. Sample Selection Process: Explain how you selected the participants or sample for your study. In computer science, the sample selection process can vary depending on the research goals and methodologies employed. For instance, if you are conducting a survey on user preferences for a specific software feature, you might recruit participants through online platforms or professional networks. Alternatively, if you are conducting interviews with software developers, you might use purposive sampling to select participants with specific expertise or experience relevant to your research.
  3. Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria: Discuss any inclusion or exclusion criteria used during the participant selection process. In computer science, certain criteria may be relevant for ensuring the sample represents the desired population or meets specific research requirements. For example, if you are studying the impact of a new programming language on software development, you might include participants who have experience with multiple programming languages but exclude those who are novices or have limited experience.
  4. Data Sources: In some computer science research, the sample may refer to data sources rather than human participants. For example, if you are analyzing large datasets, such as social media data or sensor data, you might describe the characteristics of the data sources, such as the volume, variety, or origin of the data. You could also explain the data collection process and any steps taken to ensure data quality and representativeness.

By describing the characteristics of the study participants or sample and explaining the selection process, researchers can provide insights into the population under study and the considerations taken to ensure its relevance to the research objectives. It is important to consider the representativeness of the sample or data sources and to address any potential biases that may arise from the selection process. Transparency in describing the sample characteristics and selection process contributes to the credibility and generalizability of the research findings.

How to Segregate Data Collection Methods in the Methodology Section?

In research, various data collection methods can be employed to gather the necessary data for analysis. The choice of data collection methods should align with the research questions, objectives, and the type of data needed to answer them. Here are some examples of data collection methods commonly used:

  1. Surveys: Surveys involve collecting data through structured questionnaires or online forms. Surveys can be administered to gather information about user preferences, opinions, or experiences related to software systems, user interfaces, or technological adoption. For example, a survey could be conducted to assess user satisfaction with a newly developed mobile application, collecting quantitative data on ratings, feedback, and user demographics.
  2. Interviews: Interviews involve conducting one-on-one or group discussions with participants to gather in-depth qualitative or quantitative data. In computer science, interviews can be used to understand user needs, gather requirements for software development, or explore experiences and perceptions. For instance, interviews could be conducted with software developers to understand their challenges and preferences when using specific programming frameworks or tools.
  3. Observations: Observations involve directly observing participants or systems in their natural environment or controlled settings. In computer science, observations can be used to study user behavior, system interactions, or software development processes. For example, researchers may observe users interacting with a website to gather data on usability or conduct ethnographic observations to understand how users integrate technology into their daily lives.
  4. Experiments: Experiments involve manipulating variables in a controlled environment to assess cause-effect relationships. In computer science, experiments can be used to evaluate the performance of algorithms, software systems, or user interfaces. For example, an experiment might involve comparing the effectiveness of two different algorithms for image recognition by measuring their accuracy, processing time, and resource usage under controlled conditions.
  5. Data Mining and Analysis: Data mining and analysis involve extracting meaningful patterns, insights, or correlations from large datasets. In computer science, data mining techniques can be used to identify trends, anomalies, or patterns in various domains such as social networks, cybersecurity, or recommendation systems. For instance, data mining algorithms could be applied to analyze social media data to identify sentiment trends or to detect patterns of malicious activities in network traffic data.

When choosing specific data collection methods, researchers should consider the research questions or objectives and the type of data needed to answer them effectively. Each data collection method has its strengths and limitations, and the choice should be justified based on their relevance to the research goals. Researchers should also consider practical considerations such as time constraints, available resources, and ethical considerations when selecting data collection methods.

By selecting appropriate data collection methods and justifying their relevance, researchers can ensure the data collected is robust, aligned with the research objectives, and provides valuable insights into the research questions under investigation.

Representation of Instruments and Materials in the Methodology Section

In research, the instruments and materials used for data collection play a crucial role in ensuring the reliability and validity of the findings. These instruments can include questionnaires, scales, interview protocols, software tools, or hardware devices. Here are some examples of instruments and materials commonly used:

  1. Questionnaires: Questionnaires are structured sets of questions used to collect data from participants. In computer science, questionnaires can be used to gather information about user preferences, opinions, or demographics. When developing questionnaires, researchers should pay attention to the clarity, relevance, and appropriateness of the questions. They should also consider the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which can be established through pilot testing and statistical analysis.
  2. Scales: Scales are instruments used to measure attitudes, opinions, or perceptions of participants on a specific construct. In computer science, scales can be used to assess user satisfaction, system usability, or technology acceptance. Commonly used scales in computer science research include the System Usability Scale (SUS) for evaluating usability and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for assessing users’ acceptance of technology. Researchers should ensure that the scales used have established validity and reliability through previous research studies.
  3. Interview Protocols: Interview protocols are guides or outlines used during interviews to ensure consistency and cover relevant topics. In computer science, interview protocols can be used to gather qualitative or quantitative data from participants. The development of interview protocols involves identifying the research objectives and research questions and designing open-ended or structured questions accordingly. Piloting the interview protocols and considering feedback from participants can help refine and improve their effectiveness.
  4. Software Tools: In computer science research, software tools are often used to collect, analyze, or process data. These tools can include programming languages, data collection platforms, data analysis software, or simulation environments. For example, researchers might use Python programming language and libraries such as TensorFlow or PyTorch for implementing machine learning algorithms. They might also use tools like Qualtrics or LimeSurvey for online survey data collection or tools like SPSS or R for statistical analysis.
  5. Hardware Devices: In certain computer science research, hardware devices are utilized for data collection purposes. For instance, in the field of human-computer interaction, eye-tracking devices or physiological sensors might be used to measure user attention or emotional responses. In such cases, researchers should describe the specific hardware devices used, their specifications, and any calibration or preprocessing steps undertaken to ensure accurate and reliable data collection.

When describing instruments and materials in the methodology section, researchers should provide details about their development, validity, and reliability. This can include information about the process of creating or adapting the instruments, any modifications made to suit the research context, and evidence of their psychometric properties, such as validity and reliability coefficients. Validity can be established through content validity, criterion-related validity, or construct validity, while reliability can be assessed through measures like internal consistency or test-retest reliability.

By providing a comprehensive overview of the instruments and materials used, their development process, and their validity and reliability, computer science researchers can ensure transparency and demonstrate the rigor of their data collection methods. This helps establish the credibility and trustworthiness of the research findings.

How to Represent Data Analysis in the Methodology Section?

Data analysis is a critical step in research as it involves interpreting and deriving meaningful insights from the collected data. The chosen data analysis methods should align with the research objectives and the type of data collected. Here are some examples of data analysis techniques commonly used in research:

  1. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis involves applying various statistical tests and techniques to analyze quantitative data. In computer science, statistical analysis can be used to examine relationships, identify patterns, or test hypotheses. For example, researchers may use t-tests, chi-square tests, or ANOVA to compare means or proportions between different groups. Regression analysis can be employed to assess the relationship between variables, and correlation analysis can measure the strength and direction of associations.
  2. Machine Learning: Machine learning techniques are widely used in computer science to analyze and make predictions from large datasets. These techniques include supervised learning algorithms (e.g., decision trees, support vector machines, neural networks) and unsupervised learning algorithms (e.g., clustering, dimensionality reduction). Researchers can employ machine learning techniques for tasks such as classification, regression, clustering, or anomaly detection. Popular machine learning libraries in computer science include scikit-learn, TensorFlow, and PyTorch.
  3. Qualitative Analysis: Qualitative analysis involves interpreting and making sense of qualitative data such as interview transcripts, observation notes, or textual data. In computer science, qualitative analysis methods like thematic analysis, content analysis, or grounded theory can be used to derive themes, patterns, or categories from the data. Qualitative analysis often involves coding the data, categorizing information, and identifying emergent themes or concepts. Software tools such as NVivo or Atlas.ti can be employed to facilitate qualitative analysis.
  4. Text Mining and Natural Language Processing: Text mining and natural language processing (NLP) techniques are used to analyze textual data, such as social media posts, user reviews, or scientific articles. These techniques involve tasks like sentiment analysis, topic modeling, named entity recognition, or text classification. In computer science, researchers may employ libraries such as NLTK, spaCy, or gensim to preprocess and analyze text data and derive insights from it.

When justifying the chosen data analysis methods, researchers should explain how these methods align with the research objectives and research questions. The chosen analysis methods should allow researchers to address the research objectives effectively and extract meaningful insights from the data. Researchers should also consider the limitations and assumptions of the chosen methods and discuss any steps taken to address potential biases or limitations in the analysis process.

Additionally, it is important to mention the software packages or tools used for data analysis. This provides transparency and allows other researchers to replicate or validate the analysis. Researchers should provide information about the specific versions of software packages used, any preprocessing steps applied to the data, and the rationale behind choosing those particular tools.

Listing of Ethical Considerations in Methodology Section

Ethical considerations are of utmost importance in any research study. Researchers need to ensure that the rights, privacy, and well-being of participants are protected throughout the research process. Here are some examples of ethical considerations commonly addressed in research:

  1. Informed Consent: Informed consent is a fundamental ethical principle that requires researchers to obtain the voluntary and informed agreement of participants before their involvement in the study. In computer science research, participants should be provided with clear and understandable information about the study’s purpose, procedures, potential risks and benefits, confidentiality, and their rights as participants. For example, if conducting user studies for a software evaluation, participants should be informed about the purpose of the study, the tasks they will be asked to perform, and how their data will be collected and used.
  2. Privacy and Confidentiality: Privacy and confidentiality are essential considerations, particularly when dealing with sensitive data or personal information. In computer science research, researchers must take steps to protect the privacy of participants and ensure the confidentiality of their data. For instance, if collecting user data through online platforms or mobile applications, researchers should clearly communicate how the data will be handled, stored securely, and anonymized or pseudonymized when necessary. Researchers should also obtain necessary permissions if accessing or using datasets or third-party data sources.
  3. Risks and Benefits: Researchers should carefully consider and communicate any potential risks or benefits associated with participation in the study. In computer science research, risks might include breaches of data security, potential harm to participants’ privacy, or adverse effects resulting from the use of experimental technologies. Researchers should proactively mitigate and minimize risks and ensure that the benefits of the research outweigh the potential risks to participants and society.
  4. Ethics Committee Approval: Many institutions require researchers to obtain ethics committee or review board approval before conducting research involving human participants. In computer science research, this typically involves submitting a research proposal detailing the research objectives, methods, ethical considerations, and participant protections. Examples include Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) or Ethics Review Committees. Researchers should mention any approvals obtained and follow the ethical guidelines set forth by their institution or relevant regulatory bodies.

Researchers should also be aware of any specific ethical guidelines or standards in their field of study. For example, in areas like cybersecurity or data privacy, additional considerations such as vulnerability disclosure, data anonymization, or responsible data usage may be relevant.

By addressing ethical considerations in the methodology section, researchers demonstrate their commitment to conducting responsible and ethical research. They show that they have taken appropriate measures to protect participants’ rights, privacy, and well-being. Clear communication and transparency regarding informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, potential risks and benefits, and any approvals obtained contribute to the ethical integrity and credibility of the research.

How to List Limitations and Delimitations in the Methodology Section?

In any research study, it is important to acknowledge the limitations and delimitations that may have influenced the research process or findings. Researchers should identify the constraints, boundaries, and scope of their study. Here are some examples of limitations and delimitations commonly addressed in research:

  1. Sample Size and Selection: Limitations related to sample size and selection can arise in research. For example, if the study involved user testing of a software system, the sample size might have been limited due to time and resource constraints. Researchers should acknowledge that the findings may not be generalizable to the entire population and discuss the implications of the limited sample size on the validity and generalizability of the results.
  2. Data Collection Methods: Limitations can arise from the data collection methods employed in the study. For instance, if the study relied solely on self-reported data through surveys or interviews, there may be a risk of response bias or recall bias. Researchers should acknowledge such limitations and discuss the potential impact on the reliability and validity of the findings. They could suggest future research directions that employ complementary data collection methods to enhance the robustness of the study.
  3. Time and Resource Constraints: Time and resource constraints can affect the scope and depth of a research study. Researchers may have had limited time to collect data, implement complex algorithms, or conduct extensive experiments. It is important to acknowledge these constraints and discuss how they may have influenced the research outcomes or limited the extent of the study’s analysis. Researchers should be transparent about the trade-offs made due to such limitations.
  4. Technological Constraints: In research, technological constraints can arise due to hardware limitations, software limitations, or the availability of data. For example, a study involving real-time analysis of large-scale data may have been limited by the computational power or storage capacity of the available infrastructure. Researchers should discuss these technological constraints and their potential impact on the study’s results or the generalizability of the findings.
  5. Delimitations: Delimitations define the boundaries or scope of the study. For example, a study may focus on a specific programming language, a particular software framework, or a specific user group. Researchers should clearly define and communicate these delimitations, explaining why they were chosen and discussing how they may affect the applicability of the findings to other contexts or populations.

By acknowledging the limitations and delimitations of the study, researchers demonstrate a thoughtful and reflective approach to their research. They provide transparency and context for the readers, enabling them to interpret the findings appropriately. Furthermore, by discussing the implications of these limitations and delimitations, researchers can suggest potential avenues for future research that can overcome these constraints and expand upon the current study’s limitations.

Validity and Reliability Aspects in Methodology Section

Ensuring the validity and reliability of the research findings is crucial in research. Validity refers to the extent to which the research measures what it intends to measure, while reliability refers to the consistency and stability of the research results. Here are some examples of steps taken to ensure validity and reliability in computer science research:

  1. Internal Validity: Internal validity relates to the accuracy and soundness of the causal inferences made within the study. In computer science research, researchers can enhance internal validity through various means, such as:
    • Implementing proper control groups and experimental design to establish cause-effect relationships.
    • Randomizing the assignment of participants to different conditions or treatments to minimize biases.
    • Conducting pilot studies or pre-tests to refine measurement instruments and identify potential issues.
    • Considering and addressing threats to internal validity, such as confounding variables or selection bias.
  2. External Validity: External validity refers to the generalizability of the research findings to other contexts or populations. Researchers can enhance external validity through measures such as:
    • Ensuring the representativeness of the sample or participants to the target population.
    • Employing diverse data sources or datasets to increase the breadth of the study.
    • Conducting research in multiple settings or environments to assess the generalizability of the findings.
    • Transparently reporting the study’s context, methodology, and limitations to facilitate external validity assessments by other researchers.
  3. Reliability: Reliability refers to the consistency and stability of the research results. Researchers can enhance reliability through various means, such as:
    • Employing established and validated measurement instruments or tools.
    • Conducting pilot studies or test-retest reliability analyses to assess the stability of the measurements over time.
    • Ensuring inter-rater reliability in cases where multiple researchers are involved in data coding or analysis.
    • Documenting the procedures and steps taken during data collection, preprocessing, and analysis to enable replication and validation.
  4. Minimizing Bias: Minimizing bias is crucial to maintain the integrity of the research findings. Researchers can take several steps to minimize bias, including:
    • Implementing blinding or double-blinding procedures to minimize biases in data collection or analysis.
    • Using standardized protocols or procedures to ensure consistency across participants or conditions.
    • Employing objective measures or automated data collection techniques to reduce subjective biases.
    • Conducting sensitivity analyses or exploring alternative explanations to address potential biases or alternative interpretations of the findings.

By discussing the steps taken to ensure validity and reliability, researchers demonstrate the rigor and credibility of their research. Addressing internal and external validity, as well as measures taken to minimize biases, helps establish the trustworthiness of the research findings. Additionally, providing transparency about the research methodology and limitations enables other researchers to assess and build upon the study’s validity and reliability in future work.

Representation of Timeframe and Resources in Methodology Section

The timeframe and resources utilized in a research study are important considerations that help provide a clear understanding of the project’s scope, duration, and support. Here are some examples of how this can be elaborated upon in the methodology section:

  1. Research Timeframe: The research timeframe outlines the duration of the study and provides an overview of the major milestones or stages involved. For instance, in computer science research, the timeframe may include activities such as:
    • Planning and designing the research: This involves formulating research questions, conducting literature reviews, and developing the research methodology.
    • Data collection: This includes the time required to collect data through surveys, experiments, interviews, or other methods, as well as any pilot testing or data preprocessing steps.
    • Data analysis: This phase covers the time needed for data processing, statistical analysis, coding, or machine learning model training and evaluation.
    • Results interpretation and report writing: This entails analyzing the findings, drawing conclusions, and documenting the research outcomes in the form of a dissertation or research paper.
    • Revisions and finalization: This stage accounts for any revisions, incorporating feedback, and finalizing the research document.
  2. Resources: Resources utilized can include various elements such as funding, equipment, software, datasets, and personnel. Examples of how this can be elaborated upon include:
    • Funding: Researchers can mention any grants, scholarships, or funding sources that supported the research project. For instance, if the study received funding from a research grant or institution, the details of the funding organization, grant number, and duration can be provided.
    • Equipment and Software: Researchers can outline any specialized equipment, hardware, or software used in the study. For example, if the research involved running simulations on high-performance computing clusters or using specific software tools or libraries, these details can be mentioned.
    • Datasets: If the study utilized existing datasets, researchers can specify the sources and describe any preprocessing steps or data cleaning procedures undertaken to ensure data quality and integrity.
    • Personnel: Researchers can acknowledge the contributions of any collaborators, research assistants, or support staff involved in the study. This can include their roles and responsibilities, as well as any specific expertise they brought to the project.

By providing an overview of the research timeframe and the resources utilized, researchers give readers a sense of the project’s timeline and the support available. This information helps to contextualize the research, understand the feasibility of the study, and evaluate the availability of necessary resources. It also enhances the transparency and reproducibility of the research, allowing other researchers to replicate or build upon the study’s findings.

Segregation of Data Management in Methodology Section

Data management is a critical aspect, ensuring that data is organized, stored securely, and managed throughout the research process. Here are some examples of how data management can be elaborated upon in the methodology section:

  1. Data Organization: Researchers should explain how data was organized to facilitate efficient analysis and interpretation. This may involve creating a data structure or schema that captures relevant variables, metadata, and relationships between data elements. For example, in a machine learning study, researchers may organize the data into training, validation, and test sets, each with specific features and labels.
  2. Data Storage: Researchers should describe the storage infrastructure used to house the research data. This can include local servers, cloud-based storage platforms (e.g., Amazon S3, Google Cloud Storage), or institutional data repositories. It’s important to mention the capacity and scalability of the storage solution to accommodate the volume and variety of the collected data.
  3. Data Security: Data security measures are crucial to protect the privacy and integrity of research data. Researchers should discuss the protocols implemented to ensure data security throughout the research process. Examples may include encryption of sensitive information, access controls (e.g., user authentication, authorization levels), and network security measures (e.g., firewalls, intrusion detection systems). Compliance with relevant data protection regulations, such as GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation), should also be addressed if applicable.
  4. Backup and Retention: Researchers should outline the procedures and protocols in place for data backup and retention. This includes regular backup schedules to prevent data loss, as well as the storage location and redundancy mechanisms. Researchers may also discuss data retention policies, specifying the duration for which the data will be retained after the completion of the research project, and any anonymization or pseudonymization processes applied to protect participant identities.
  5. Data Sharing and Access: Researchers should indicate whether the research data will be shared with other researchers or made publicly available. If data sharing is planned, details such as the repository or platform where the data will be deposited and any associated access restrictions or licenses should be provided. Researchers should also address any ethical or legal considerations related to data sharing, such as obtaining informed consent from participants for data sharing purposes.

By explaining the data management procedures, researchers demonstrate their commitment to maintaining data integrity, privacy, and security. Transparently documenting data organization, storage, security, backup, and retention protocols enhances the reproducibility and credibility of the research. It also ensures compliance with ethical guidelines and data protection regulations, while facilitating data sharing and future collaborations.


The methodology section of a dissertation plays a crucial role in providing a clear and comprehensive understanding of how the research was conducted. It serves as a roadmap that outlines the methods, procedures, and techniques employed to address the research questions or objectives.

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Dr. Vijay Rajpurohit
Author: Dr. Vijay Rajpurohit
Dr. Vijay Rajpurohit is a researcher in Computer Science. He loves to educate researchers and research scholars on Research Paper Writing, Thesis Writing, Research Grants, Patenting Research Work and the latest Research-related issues. You can reach him @ [email protected]