Patent Application Process: From Search to Filing to Maintenance

Patent Application Process


Innovation and creativity are at the heart of progress, driving new ideas and breakthrough technologies that have the potential to change the world. However, bringing a new invention to market is not without its challenges, particularly when it comes to protecting your intellectual property.

Patents play a critical role in safeguarding your ideas and innovations, giving you exclusive rights to produce and sell your invention for a specified period of time. However navigating the patent application process can be a complex and daunting journey, with numerous steps and requirements that must be carefully managed to maximize your chances of success.

Patents are legal protections that are granted to inventors and innovators who create new and useful inventions or processes. Patents provide a way for inventors and innovators to prevent others from making, using, or selling their inventions without their permission for a limited period of time, typically 20 years from the filing date of the patent application.

This exclusive right to use and commercialize the invention can be a powerful tool for inventors and innovators to bring their ideas to market and generate revenue.

In addition to protecting inventors’ and innovators’ ideas, patents can also incentivize innovation by providing a financial return on investment in research and development. By granting a limited monopoly on the use of an invention, patents can encourage inventors and innovators to disclose their ideas and share their knowledge with others, promoting further progress in science and technology.

The patent application process can be complex and time-consuming, but understanding the basics can help inventors and innovators navigate the process more effectively. At a high level, the patent application process involves:

  1. Conducting a patent search to ensure that the invention is novel and non-obvious.
  2. Preparing a patent application that includes a detailed description of the invention, as well as claims that define the scope of the invention.
  3. Filing the patent application with the appropriate patent office, such as the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
  4. Prosecuting the patent application may involve responding to office actions and potentially appealing decisions by the patent examiner.
  5. Maintaining the patent by paying maintenance fees and ensuring that the invention remains in compliance with patent laws and regulations.

Overall, the patent application process can be a valuable tool for inventors and innovators to protect their ideas and bring their innovations to market. However, it is important to approach the process with careful planning and attention to detail and to seek professional guidance as needed.

In this article, we will explore some essential tips and strategies for inventors and innovators who are navigating the patent application process. From conducting a thorough patent search to drafting a clear and concise patent application, selecting the right filing option, and maintaining your patent, we will guide you through each step of the process and help you understand what it takes to protect your intellectual property and bring your ideas to life. Few researchers prefer to apply for a provisional patent which gives temporary protection for the idea. For further details visit my article on Provisional Patents 101: What You Need to Know?.

Before We Proceed….

Are you at a crossroads after completing your groundbreaking research? Unsure whether to apply for a patent or craft a research paper? Delve into the essential insights in my blog post, ‘Whether to Publish or Patent My Research Work?’ It’s the guide you’ve been waiting for to make that pivotal decision.

For those who are new to the intricate world of patenting, don’t worry—I’ve got you covered. Explore my comprehensive article, ‘Understanding Patents: A Complete Guide for Inventors and Entrepreneurs.’ It’s your key to unlocking the potential of your innovative ideas.

If you’re looking to strike a balance between applying for a patent and publishing to protect your intellectual property, ‘Provisional Patents 101: A Complete Guide to Protecting Your Ideas’ is your ultimate resource.

And for those visionaries who’ve already developed a game-changing product and see boundless opportunities for monetization, don’t miss my article, ‘Patent Monetization Made Easy: How to Unlock the Value of Your Intellectual Property.’ It’s time to transform your brilliant ideas into real-world success stories. Explore these articles now to embark on your path to innovation, protection, and prosperity.

Conducting a Patent Search

Before you embark on the journey of filing a patent application, it’s crucial to conduct a thorough patent search. This step involves searching existing patents and prior art to determine if your invention is truly novel and non-obvious. Here’s why a patent search is so important:

  1. Avoid duplication: Conducting a patent search helps you ensure that your invention hasn’t already been patented by someone else. If a similar patent exists, it could prevent you from obtaining a patent for your idea. For instance, imagine you’ve developed a unique type of smartphone screen that bends without breaking. A patent search might reveal that someone else already holds a patent for a similar flexible screen technology.
  2. Refining your invention: Studying existing patents can provide valuable insights and help you refine your invention. By understanding what has been patented in your field, you can identify gaps or opportunities for improvement. For example, if you’re developing a new type of electric vehicle battery, researching existing patents might reveal areas where your design can be enhanced for greater efficiency.
  3. Saving time and money: Filing a patent application is a costly and time-consuming process. By conducting a patent search upfront, you can avoid investing resources in an idea that’s unlikely to be granted a patent. This saves you both time and money in the long run.

When conducting a patent search, it’s important to be thorough and systematic. Here are some tips to keep in mind:

  1. Use official patent databases: Start your search on official patent databases provided by patent offices like the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the European Patent Office (EPO), or the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). These databases are comprehensive and reliable.
  2. Use appropriate keywords: Think about the keywords or phrases that best describe your invention, and use them as search terms. Be creative and consider synonyms or alternative terminology. If you’re working on a new type of noise-cancelling headphones, you might search for terms like “noise-cancellation,” “audio technology,” and “headphone innovation.”
  3. Narrow down your search: Refine your search by adding filters like publication date, patent type, or inventor name to narrow down the results. For example, if you want to focus on recent patents related to artificial intelligence in healthcare, you can filter your search accordingly.
  4. Review related patents: Don’t just look for identical inventions; also study patents related to your field or industry. Sometimes, similar inventions can offer insights or reveal potential competitors. If you’re developing a new medical device, explore patents related to similar medical technologies.

Several tools and resources are available to assist you in conducting a patent search:

  1. Google Patents: Google Patents is a user-friendly and free platform that allows you to search for patents worldwide. It provides access to a vast database of patents and offers various search filters.
  2. USPTO’s Patent Search: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) provides an official patent search tool on its website, which is particularly useful if you’re interested in U.S. patents.
  3. Espacenet: Espacenet is a European Patent Office (EPO) database that offers access to millions of patent documents from around the world. It’s a valuable resource for international patent searches.
  4. Patent search firms: If you’re dealing with a complex invention or need in-depth searching, you can hire patent search firms or professionals who specialize in this area. They have access to specialized databases and can provide detailed reports.

By conducting a thorough patent search using these tools and following the tips mentioned, you can gain a better understanding of the patent landscape in your field and make informed decisions about pursuing your own patent application. I have written an article on 4 Proven Steps for Conducting an Authentic Patent Search

Preparing the Patent Application

  1. Title of the invention: A brief but descriptive title that accurately reflects the nature of the invention.
  2. Cross-reference to related applications: If the invention is related to another previously filed patent application, this section will reference that application.
  3. Background of the invention: This section provides context and background information about the invention, including any prior art or existing technology that the invention improves upon.
  4. Summary of the invention: A concise summary of the invention and its key features and benefits.
  5. Brief description of the drawings: If the invention includes any illustrations or diagrams, this section briefly describes them.
  6. A detailed description of the invention: This is the main section of the patent application, which provides a detailed and comprehensive description of the invention, including how it works and how it is made.
  7. Claims: This section defines the scope of the invention and describes the specific aspects that are being claimed as unique and non-obvious.
  8. Abstract: A brief summary of the entire patent application, typically no more than 150 words.

Tips for Drafting a High-Quality Patent Application

Writing a clear and concise patent application is crucial for effectively communicating the invention and securing a patent. Here are some tips for drafting a high-quality patent application:

  1. Use clear and concise language: Avoid overly technical jargon or complex language that may confuse or alienate the reader.
  2. Describe the invention in detail: Provide a thorough description of the invention, including any technical details or unique features that set it apart from existing technology.
  3. Provide examples: Including specific examples or use cases can help illustrate the invention and make it easier to understand.
  4. Use diagrams and illustrations: Including clear and accurate diagrams or illustrations can help the reader visualize the invention and better understand how it works.
  5. Organize the application logically: Ensure that the application flows logically and is easy to follow, with clear headings and subheadings to break up the text.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

There are several common mistakes that inventors and innovators should avoid when preparing a patent application, including:

  1. Failing to conduct a thorough patent search before filing the application, can result in the application being rejected or the patent being invalidated later on.
  2. Failing to disclose all relevant information about the invention, can also result in the patent being invalidated.
  3. Using overly broad or vague language in the claims section can make the invention vulnerable to challenges from competitors.
  4. Failing to accurately describe the invention or provide enough detail, can make it difficult to understand and secure a patent.
  5. Failing to hire a qualified patent attorney or agent to help prepare and file the application, can result in errors or omissions that can impact the success of the application.

Filing the Patent Application

Patent Application Filing Options

There are several different filing options available to inventors and innovators who wish to file a patent application, including:

  1. Provisional application: A provisional application is a lower-cost, simplified version of a regular patent application that establishes an early filing date for the invention. It does not require a formal claim or a detailed description of the invention.
  2. Non-provisional application: A non-provisional application is the standard type of patent application that requires a detailed description of the invention, as well as formal claims.
  3. Continuation application: A continuation application is filed to pursue additional claims based on a previously filed patent application.
  4. Divisional application: A divisional application is filed when an invention is divided into two or more inventions, each of which can be pursued in a separate patent application.
  5. PCT application: A PCT application is an international patent application that can be used to seek patent protection in multiple countries.

Tips for Selecting the Right Filing Option

Selecting the right filing option depends on several factors, including the type of invention, the level of detail in the application, and the inventor’s budget and goals. Here are some tips for selecting the right filing option:

  1. Consider the level of detail required: A provisional application may be a good option for inventors who want to establish an early filing date for their invention without providing a detailed description or formal claims. A non-provisional application is typically required for a full patent.
  2. Consider the budget: A provisional application is typically less expensive than a non-provisional application, but it provides less protection and must be followed up with a non-provisional application within 12 months. A non-provisional application can be more expensive, but it provides stronger protection and can be filed on its own.
  3. Consider the inventor’s goals: If the inventor plans to seek patent protection in multiple countries, a PCT application may be a good option, as it provides a streamlined process for pursuing international patents.

Fees Associated with Filing a Patent Application

There are several fees associated with filing a patent application, including:

  1. Filing fee: The initial fee for filing a patent application.
  2. Search fee: The fee for conducting a patent search to determine the patentability of the invention.
  3. Examination fee: The fee for having the patent application examined by the patent office.
  4. Maintenance fees: Ongoing fees that must be paid to keep the patent in force.

The fees associated with filing a patent application can vary depending on the type of application, the complexity of the invention, and the jurisdiction in which the application is filed. Inventors should budget for these fees and consult with a qualified patent attorney or agent for guidance on the specific fees associated with their application.

Prosecuting the Patent Application

Patent Examiner’s Role in the Process

After a patent application is filed, it is assigned to a patent examiner who is responsible for reviewing the application and determining whether the invention meets the requirements for patentability. The patent examiner’s role in the process includes:

  1. Conducting a patent search to determine whether the invention is new and non-obvious.
  2. Reviewing the application to ensure that it meets the requirements for a patent, including the description, claims, and drawings.
  3. Issuing an office action if there are any issues or objections with the application.
  4. Working with the inventor or their attorney to resolve any issues or objections.

Tips for Responding to Office Actions

An office action is a written communication from the patent examiner that identifies issues or objections with the patent application. Here are some tips for responding to office actions:

  1. Read the office action carefully: Carefully review the office action to understand the issues or objections raised by the patent examiner.
  2. Consult with a patent attorney: A qualified patent attorney can provide guidance on how to respond to the office action and navigate the prosecution process.
  3. Address each issue or objection: Address each issue or objection raised by the patent examiner in a clear and concise manner.
  4. Provide supporting documentation: Provide supporting documentation or arguments to support the patentability of the invention.
  5. Be professional: Respond to the office action in a professional and courteous manner.

Overview of the Appeals Process

If the patent examiner issues a final rejection of the patent application, the inventor or their attorney may file an appeal with the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB). The appeals process includes:

  1. Filing a notice of appeal: The inventor or their attorney must file a notice of appeal within a specified time period after receiving the final rejection.
  2. Briefing: The inventor or their attorney and the patent examiner will submit written briefs to the PTAB.
  3. Oral argument: The inventor or their attorney and the patent examiner will present oral arguments to the PTAB.
  4. Decision: The PTAB will issue a decision on the appeal, which may uphold the patent examiner’s decision or reverse it.

Inventors should consult with a qualified patent attorney or agent for guidance on the appeals process and to determine whether an appeal is appropriate in their case.

Maintaining the Patent

Maintenance Fees Required to Keep a Patent in Force

Once a patent is granted, it is important for the inventor to maintain the patent to ensure its continued protection. In order to keep a patent in force, maintenance fees must be paid at specified intervals throughout the life of the patent. Failure to pay these fees can result in the patent becoming abandoned.

Tips for Ensuring Timely Payment of Maintenance Fees

Here are some tips for ensuring timely payment of maintenance fees:

  1. Keep track of the due dates: Mark the due dates for maintenance fees on a calendar or set up automatic reminders to ensure that they are not missed.
  2. Budget for the fees: Budget for the maintenance fees and include them as a regular expense to avoid any financial surprises.
  3. Consider outsourcing: Consider outsourcing the responsibility of maintaining the patent to a patent attorney or agent who can keep track of the fees and ensure timely payment.

Overview of the Patent Renewal Process

The patent renewal process involves paying the required maintenance fees to keep the patent in force. The maintenance fees must be paid at specified intervals throughout the life of the patent. Here is an overview of the patent renewal process:

  1. Paying the first maintenance fee: The first maintenance fee is due at 3.5 years from the date the patent was granted.
  2. Paying the second maintenance fee: The second maintenance fee is due at 7.5 years from the date the patent was granted.
  3. Paying the third maintenance fee: The third maintenance fee is due at 11.5 years from the date the patent was granted.

If the maintenance fees are not paid on time, a surcharge may be added to the amount due, and failure to pay the fees within the specified period can result in the patent being abandoned.

It is important for inventors to keep track of the due dates for maintenance fees and ensure timely payment to maintain the validity of their patents.


In conclusion, navigating the patent application process can be a complex and challenging journey for inventors and innovators. However, with the right guidance and resources, it is possible to successfully navigate this process and protect your intellectual property.

Some key takeaways to keep in mind include the importance of conducting a thorough patent search, working with a skilled patent attorney or agent, and paying close attention to the details throughout each step of the process. Additionally, understanding the differences between provisional and non-provisional patent applications, as well as the associated fees and maintenance requirements, can help you make informed decisions about how to proceed.

Whether you are a first-time inventor or an experienced entrepreneur, seeking professional guidance and support can help you maximize your chances of success and achieve your goals. With these tips in mind, we encourage you to take the necessary steps to protect your intellectual property and bring your ideas to life.

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Dr. Vijay Rajpurohit
Author: Dr. Vijay Rajpurohit
Dr. Vijay Rajpurohit is a researcher in Computer Science. He loves to educate researchers and research scholars on Research Paper Writing, Thesis Writing, Research Grants, Patenting Research Work and the latest Research-related issues. You can reach him @ [email protected]