Do You Need Publications for a PhD Application? The Essential Guide for Applicants

Publication for PhD Application

The pursuit of a PhD is a significant academic endeavor that demands rigorous research, critical thinking, and a profound contribution to knowledge in a specific field. One crucial aspect that often sparks curiosity and deliberation among aspiring Ph.D. candidates is the role and quantity of publications in their application. The question of “How many publications should be there for a Ph.D.?” is both pertinent and multifaceted, as it delves into the intricate dynamics of academic expectations, research experiences, and the diverse landscapes of different disciplines.

This essential guide aims to navigate this query, providing aspiring doctoral candidates with insights, considerations, and valuable perspectives on the role publications play in the pursuit of a Ph.D. Understanding the nuances surrounding this aspect is vital for prospective researchers to tailor their approach, showcase their research potential effectively, and embark on a successful journey toward earning a Ph.D.


The term “Ph.D.” stands for Doctor of Philosophy, a pinnacle academic degree that represents the highest level of expertise and accomplishment in a specific field. Contrary to its nomenclature, a Ph.D. is not limited to the realm of philosophy but encompasses a wide array of disciplines, including the sciences, humanities, social sciences, and more.

It is awarded to individuals who have demonstrated mastery in their chosen area of study, made an original contribution to the existing body of knowledge through independent research, and successfully defended their findings through a dissertation.

Importance of Publications in the Academic Journey

Publications serve as tangible evidence of a researcher’s ability to contribute meaningfully to their field. They take various forms, such as journal articles, conference papers, and books, and showcase the researcher’s capacity to conduct valuable and novel research. For Ph.D. candidates, the importance of publications lies in their ability to demonstrate not only the depth of their understanding but also their capability to disseminate knowledge to the broader academic community. Publications contribute to a researcher’s academic reputation, establish credibility, and play a crucial role in career advancement.

Example: In the field of scientific research, a Ph.D. candidate publishing groundbreaking findings in a reputable scientific journal not only adds to their academic credentials but also significantly influences the advancement of their field.

Purpose of the Guide

This guide is crafted with the aim of providing clarity and guidance to prospective Ph.D. applicants grappling with the question of how many publications are necessary for a successful application. Recognizing the varied expectations across disciplines and institutions, the purpose is to offer insights into the nuanced role publications play in the application process.

By navigating the complexities of this aspect, the guide seeks to empower aspiring Ph.D. candidates to strategically present their research profile, understand the significance of publications, and tailor their approach to meet the specific requirements of their academic journey.

Understanding PhD Programs’ Publication Expectations

Variances Across Disciplines

1. Nature of Research Output:

Different academic disciplines have distinct norms regarding research output and publication expectations. For instance, in experimental sciences, the expectation for peer-reviewed journal articles might be higher compared to some humanities disciplines where books or critical essays hold more weight.

Example: In the field of computer science, a Ph.D. candidate might be expected to have a series of conference papers or journal articles showcasing their algorithmic innovations, while a literature Ph.D. candidate might be expected to produce a significant monograph.

2. Collaborative vs. Solo Research:
The culture of collaboration varies among disciplines. Some fields encourage collaborative research leading to co-authored publications, while others emphasize individual contributions.

Example: In genetics research, collaborative efforts may lead to multiple authors on a paper, reflecting a collective contribution to a project, whereas in philosophy, a Ph.D. candidate may be expected to independently produce scholarly articles.

B. Institutional Requirements

1. Departmental Expectations:

Different academic departments within the same institution may have specific publication expectations based on their unique academic focus and traditions.

Example: The expectations for publications in a Ph.D. program in economics might differ from those in a Ph.D. program in sociology within the same university, reflecting the distinctive research paradigms of each discipline.

2. Impact of Research Culture:
Institutional research culture and priorities can influence the emphasis placed on publications. Research-intensive universities may have higher expectations compared to institutions with a stronger focus on teaching.

Example: A Ph.D. program at a research-intensive university might prioritize a candidate’s publication record more heavily, aligning with the institution’s emphasis on contributing to the academic discourse.

1. Evolution of Expectations:

The expectations for publications in Ph.D. programs can evolve over time due to changes in the academic landscape, technological advancements, or shifts in research methodologies.

Example: With the rise of open-access journals and the increasing importance of interdisciplinary research, some Ph.D. programs may now value a diverse range of publications beyond traditional academic journals.

2. Benchmarking Against Past Graduates:
Historical data on the publication achievements of past Ph.D. graduates can serve as a benchmark for current expectations, providing insights into the evolving standards of academic success.

Example: If a university’s graduates historically made significant contributions to academic journals during their Ph.D. programs, it might indicate that the institution values a strong publication record among its candidates.

Factors Influencing Publication Requirements

A. Academic Field

1. Research Culture and Traditions:

The academic field or discipline significantly shapes publication expectations. Fields with a strong tradition of empirical research might emphasize journal articles, while those with a focus on theoretical contributions may prioritize books or book chapters.

Example: In the field of psychology, empirical studies published in reputable journals might be a common expectation, whereas in philosophy, a candidate may be more likely to publish monographs or critical essays in philosophical journals.

2. Publication Outlet Norms:
Different academic fields often have established norms regarding prestigious publication outlets. Expectations can vary based on whether conferences, journals, or other forms of dissemination are highly regarded within a specific discipline.

Example: In computer science, presenting research at top conferences may carry as much weight as journal publications, while in medicine, publishing in reputable medical journals might be more emphasized.

B. Specific PhD Program Policies

1. Formal Program Guidelines:

Each Ph.D. program may have explicit guidelines outlining the expected publication requirements for candidates. These guidelines are often influenced by the program’s mission, goals, and the academic ethos of the institution.

Example: A Ph.D. program in environmental science might explicitly state that candidates are expected to have at least one peer-reviewed publication in a high-impact environmental journal before completing their degree.

2. Flexibility and Adaptability:
Some programs may be more flexible in their approach, allowing candidates to tailor their publication strategies based on individual research goals and the evolving landscape of their academic field.

Example: A Ph.D. program in cultural studies might encourage candidates to explore alternative forms of dissemination, such as public engagement initiatives or multimedia presentations, alongside traditional publications.

C. Supervisors’ Preferences

1. Research Philosophy of Supervisors: The philosophy and expectations of individual research supervisors play a pivotal role in shaping a Ph.D. candidate’s publication trajectory. Some supervisors may prioritize a steady stream of publications, while others may emphasize the quality and impact of the work.

Example: A supervisor with a focus on applied research in engineering might encourage their candidate to publish in industry-relevant journals, while a supervisor in the humanities may place more importance on contributing to scholarly debates.

2. Alignment of Research Interests:
The specific research interests of the supervisor can influence the choice of publication outlets and the overall publication strategy. Alignment with the supervisor’s expertise often guides the selection of journals or conferences.

Example: If a candidate’s research aligns with a supervisor’s expertise in political science, the supervisor may encourage publications in reputable political science journals that resonate with the ongoing discourse in the field.

Debunking Common Myths About PhD Publications

A. Quality vs. Quantity Debate

1. Myth: More Publications Mean Better Researcher:

There is a common misconception that the quantity of publications is directly proportional to the quality of research. However, the emphasis should be on the impact and significance of the work rather than sheer volume.

Example: A Ph.D. candidate with a few high-impact publications showcasing groundbreaking research may be viewed more favorably than a candidate with numerous publications of lower impact.

2. Reality: Emphasizing Depth and Impact:
The quality vs. quantity debate highlights the importance of producing meaningful contributions to the field. A few well-regarded publications that significantly advance knowledge can outweigh a larger number of less impactful ones.

Example: A candidate with a single publication in a prestigious journal that changes the trajectory of research in their field may be considered more impactful than someone with several publications in less influential outlets.

B. Impact Factor Obsession

1. Myth: Higher Impact Factor Always Better:

A common misconception is that the impact factor of a journal is the sole indicator of the quality and impact of a publication. While impact factor is a valuable metric, it should not be the exclusive criterion.

Example: A publication in a specialized journal with a lower impact factor might be highly influential within a niche field, showcasing the candidate’s expertise and impact.

2. Reality: Context Matters:
Impact factors should be considered in the context of the specific field. A lower impact factor in one discipline might be equivalent to a higher impact factor in another, depending on the publishing norms of each field.

Example: In some social science disciplines, impactful work may be disseminated through respected conferences rather than high-impact journals, making conference publications a crucial metric alongside traditional journal impact.

C. Publications as the Sole Criterion

1. Myth: Publications Determine Academic Worth: There’s a misconception that the number of publications alone defines a researcher’s academic worth. While publications are essential, other factors, such as teaching, mentorship, and the ability to collaborate, also contribute to academic success.

Example: A candidate with a strong teaching record, active involvement in collaborative projects, and impactful community engagement may demonstrate a well-rounded academic profile, even if the publication count is moderate.

2. Reality: Holistic Evaluation Required:
Academic merit is multifaceted, and a holistic evaluation considers a candidate’s contributions to research, teaching, and service. Publications are crucial but should be viewed as one aspect of a broader academic portfolio.

Example: A Ph.D. candidate who actively contributes to departmental initiatives, mentors students, and collaborates on interdisciplinary projects may be highly valued, showcasing that academic success extends beyond publications alone.

Differentiating Between Traditional and Alternative Publications

A. Peer-Reviewed Journals

1. Traditional Gold Standard:

Peer-reviewed journals are often considered the gold standard for academic publications. These journals undergo a rigorous review process where experts in the field evaluate the research for quality, validity, and significance before publication.

Example: An article published in a prestigious, peer-reviewed journal in the field of physics is typically held in high regard, signifying that the research has met stringent standards of excellence.

2. Credibility and Academic Recognition:
Publications in peer-reviewed journals carry significant weight in academia. They provide a stamp of credibility, indicating that the research has been subjected to thorough scrutiny and validation by experts in the respective field.

Example: In the biomedical sciences, a Ph.D. candidate’s publication in a well-respected medical journal is likely to enhance their academic reputation and contribute to the advancement of medical knowledge.

Example: An article published in a prestigious, peer-reviewed journal in the field of physics is typically held in high regard, signifying that the research has met stringent standards of excellence.

B. Conference Proceedings

1. Rapid Dissemination of Research:

Conference proceedings are a platform for researchers to present their work to a wider audience quickly. These publications often undergo a review process but may have a faster turnaround than traditional journals, allowing for timely dissemination of research findings.

Example: In computer science, where the pace of technological advancements is rapid, presenting research findings at conferences and publishing in proceedings is a common practice to share cutting-edge discoveries.

2. Networking and Collaboration:
Conference publications not only contribute to a researcher’s body of work but also provide opportunities for networking and collaboration. Engaging with peers at conferences can lead to collaborative projects and further research opportunities.

Example: A Ph.D. candidate in environmental science presenting at an international conference not only disseminates their findings but also connects with experts in the field, potentially leading to collaborative research endeavors.

C. Other Forms of Scholarly Output

1. Diverse Avenues for Dissemination: Scholarly output extends beyond traditional journals and conferences. Books, book chapters, policy papers, public engagement initiatives, and even digital media can serve as alternative forms of disseminating research.

Example: In the humanities, a Ph.D. candidate might publish a monograph exploring a critical theory, contributing to academic discourse through a book that becomes a foundational reference in the field.

2. Expanding the Impact Beyond Academia:
Alternative forms of scholarly output can have a broader impact, reaching audiences beyond academia. Policy papers, public lectures, and engagement with mainstream media contribute to knowledge dissemination in diverse spheres.

Example: A Ph.D. candidate in sociology who actively participates in public forums, writes opinion pieces for mainstream media, and engages with policymakers may impact societal conversations beyond the confines of academic journals.

Case Studies: Publication Expectations in Various Fields

A. Sciences and Engineering

1. Quantitative Research Emphasis:

In the sciences and engineering, there is often a strong emphasis on quantitative research and empirical studies. Ph.D. candidates in these fields are typically expected to produce a considerable number of peer-reviewed journal articles showcasing experimental methodologies, data analysis, and technological innovations.

Example: A Ph.D. candidate in materials science might publish research articles in top-tier journals, presenting novel findings related to the development of advanced materials with specific properties.

2. Conference Contributions:
Conferences play a crucial role in disseminating findings rapidly in the sciences and engineering. Ph.D. candidates frequently present their work at conferences, publishing proceedings that contribute to the ongoing dialogue within the scientific community.

Example: In computer science, a Ph.D. candidate might showcase innovative algorithms or system designs at conferences, contributing to the field’s rapid pace of development.

B. Social Sciences

1. Diversity of Publication Outlets:

Social sciences encompass a broad range of disciplines, leading to diverse publication expectations. While peer-reviewed journals remain significant, other outlets such as policy reports, books, and contributions to mainstream media are valued for their impact on societal understanding.

Example: A Ph.D. candidate in sociology might publish research articles in academic journals, but they may also contribute to policy discussions by writing reports that inform decision-makers about social issues.

2. Qualitative Research Recognition:
Social sciences often value qualitative research methods. Publications may include in-depth case studies, ethnographic research, and theoretical contributions in addition to traditional quantitative studies.

Example: A Ph.D. candidate in psychology might publish a qualitative study exploring the lived experiences of individuals with a specific mental health condition, contributing to the field’s understanding of psychological well-being.

C. Humanities

1. Book-Length Contributions:

In the humanities, the publication landscape often involves book-length contributions, critical essays, and monographs. Ph.D. candidates in these fields may focus on producing in-depth, scholarly works that contribute to theoretical frameworks and interpretative approaches.

Example: A Ph.D. candidate in literature might publish a monograph that offers a new interpretation of a classic work, contributing to the ongoing discourse within literary studies.

2. Engagement with Disciplinary Debates:
Publications in the humanities frequently engage with broader disciplinary debates, offering critical perspectives and interpretations that shape the intellectual landscape.

Example: A Ph.D. candidate in philosophy might contribute to academic journals by publishing articles that challenge existing philosophical paradigms or propose novel ethical frameworks.

Navigating the PhD Application Process Without Publications

A. Emphasizing Research Potential

1. Strong Research Proposal:

In the absence of publications, prospective Ph.D. candidates can highlight their research potential by crafting a compelling and well-defined research proposal. Clearly articulating the research questions, methodologies, and potential contributions can demonstrate the candidate’s capacity for original and impactful research.

Example: An applicant in environmental science without prior publications might emphasize their research potential by proposing a project to investigate the impact of climate change on a specific ecosystem, showcasing a clear understanding of the field and potential contributions.

1. Letters of Recommendation:
Strong letters of recommendation from professors who can attest to the candidate’s research abilities, work ethic, and intellectual curiosity can serve as powerful endorsements of research potential.

Example: A letter of recommendation from a professor highlighting the candidate’s exceptional research skills, despite a lack of publications, can provide evidence of their ability to contribute meaningfully to a Ph.D. program.

B. Demonstrating Academic Excellence

1. Outstanding Academic Record:

A stellar academic record, including high grades in relevant coursework and relevant honors, can serve as a strong indicator of a candidate’s intellectual capabilities and readiness for doctoral-level research.

Example: A Ph.D. applicant in economics with a consistently high GPA, awards for academic excellence, and a strong performance in advanced research-oriented courses can showcase their academic prowess.

2. GRE/GMAT/GATE/NET Scores and Standardized Tests:
Strong performance in standardized tests like the GRE or GMAT or GATE or NET can reinforce a candidate’s academic qualifications and demonstrate their preparedness for rigorous academic inquiry.

Example: An applicant in computer science may compensate for a lack of publications by achieving a top percentile score in the GRE quantitative reasoning section, showcasing their strong analytical and problem-solving skills.

Example: A Ph.D. applicant in economics with a consistently high GPA, awards for academic excellence, and a strong performance in advanced research-oriented courses can showcase their academic prowess.

1. Research Experience and Internships:

Highlighting relevant research experience, internships, or projects can provide evidence of the candidate’s practical application of research skills, even if formal publications are limited.

Example: A candidate in sociology may detail their involvement in a community-based research project, showcasing their ability to apply research methodologies in real-world settings.

2. Conference Presentations:
While not formal publications, presenting research findings at conferences demonstrates an active engagement with the academic community. This can be especially valuable for candidates without published work.

Example: A Ph.D. applicant in political science may showcase conference presentations where they presented findings from their undergraduate or master’s thesis, providing evidence of their commitment to scholarly discourse.

These strategies allow candidates to navigate the Ph.D. application process effectively, showcasing their potential for impactful research even in the absence of a substantial publication record.

Balancing Publications with Other PhD Application Components

A. Research Statement

1. Clear Research Objectives: In the research statement, candidates should articulate clear and well-defined research objectives. Even without a significant publication record, a compelling research statement can convey the candidate’s vision, the significance of their proposed research, and its potential impact on the field.

Example: A Ph.D. applicant in psychology, without publications, can use the research statement to outline a study investigating a novel aspect of cognitive psychology, emphasizing the research questions, hypotheses, and anticipated contributions.

2. Alignment with Program’s Goals:
It is crucial to align the research statement with the goals and focus areas of the Ph.D. program. Demonstrating how the proposed research aligns with the program’s priorities can strengthen the application.

Example: A candidate in public health may emphasize in their research statement how their proposed research aligns with the program’s emphasis on community health and prevention, showcasing a tailored approach to the program’s objectives.

B. Letters of Recommendation

1. Detailed Assessments of Research Potential:

Letters of recommendation become even more critical when publications are limited. Recommenders should provide detailed assessments of the candidate’s research potential, work ethic, and intellectual capabilities, offering a comprehensive view of the candidate beyond their publication history.

Example: A letter from a professor who supervised the candidate’s research project can emphasize the candidate’s ability to formulate research questions, design studies, and analyze data, showcasing their research potential.

2. Addressing Research Skills and Collaboration:
Recommenders can speak to the candidate’s research-related skills, such as data analysis, critical thinking, and collaboration. Highlighting these aspects can compensate for a lack of published work.

Example: A letter of recommendation from a supervisor in a research internship can detail the candidate’s proficiency in using statistical software, their ability to collaborate with a research team, and their dedication to producing high-quality work.

C. Academic Achievements and Qualifications

1. Relevant Coursework and Specializations:

Academic achievements beyond publications, such as relevant coursework, specializations, or advanced training, can reinforce the candidate’s qualifications for doctoral-level research.

Example: An applicant in environmental science can highlight coursework in advanced statistical methods and specialized training in environmental modeling, demonstrating their academic preparation for rigorous research.

2. Extracurricular and Leadership Roles:
In addition to academic achievements, involvement in extracurricular activities, leadership roles, or participation in academic conferences can contribute to a well-rounded academic profile.

Example: A Ph.D. applicant in sociology, without a substantial publication record, may emphasize their leadership role in a research-oriented student organization, showcasing their commitment to scholarly activities beyond the classroom.

By strategically balancing these components, candidates can present a comprehensive and compelling application, demonstrating their potential for success in a Ph.D. program even when publications are not the primary focus.

Expert Opinions and Advice

A. Perspectives from PhD Admissions Committees

1. Holistic Evaluation Approach:

PhD admissions committees often emphasize a holistic evaluation approach, considering various aspects beyond publications. Committees recognize that research potential can be demonstrated through research statements, letters of recommendation, and academic achievements.

Example: The admissions committee of a psychology Ph.D. program may highlight the importance of a well-crafted research statement, strong letters of recommendation, and relevant coursework alongside publications in their evaluation process.

2. Emphasis on Fit with Program Goals:
Admissions committees look for candidates whose research interests align with the program’s goals and strengths. Demonstrating this alignment in the application can significantly impact the committee’s decision.

Example: If a Ph.D. program in computer science prioritizes artificial intelligence research, the admissions committee may favor applicants whose research statements clearly align with this focus, even if their publication record is modest.

B. Insights from Successful PhD Candidates

1. Emphasizing Persistence and Growth:

Successful Ph.D. candidates often highlight their journey and growth throughout the application process. They emphasize not only their achievements but also the persistence and dedication demonstrated in the face of challenges, including a limited publication history.

Example: A successful Ph.D. candidate in political science may share in their application essay how they overcame initial obstacles, refined their research interests, and showcased their growth through involvement in research projects.

2. Leveraging Alternative Forms of Contribution:
Candidates who have succeeded without an extensive publication record may discuss alternative contributions, such as conference presentations, public engagement, or collaboration, to showcase their impact on the academic community.

Example: A candidate in environmental studies might highlight their contributions to community-based projects, presentations at local environmental forums, and engagement with non-profit organizations, demonstrating a broader impact beyond traditional publications.

3. Networking and Collaborations:

Successful Ph.D. candidates often emphasize the importance of networking and collaborations in building a strong application. Establishing connections with potential advisors, attending conferences, and engaging with the academic community can enhance a candidate’s profile.

Example: A candidate in sociology may attribute their success to networking with professors in their area of interest, attending relevant conferences, and participating in collaborative research projects, all of which contribute to a robust application.

Expert opinions and advice underscore the significance of a comprehensive approach to Ph.D. applications, acknowledging that success is not solely determined by the quantity of publications but by a combination of factors that showcase research potential, academic excellence, and alignment with program objectives.

Strategies for Aspiring PhD Applicants

A. Leveraging Research Experience

1. Highlighting Relevant Projects:

Aspiring Ph.D. applicants can leverage research experience by highlighting relevant projects they have been involved in during their academic journey. This can include coursework projects, research internships, or collaborative endeavors.

Example: An applicant in biochemistry may detail their involvement in a laboratory research project where they contributed to the discovery of a new protein function, showcasing hands-on experience and the application of research skills.

2. Showcasing Methodological Expertise:
Emphasizing the methodologies employed in research projects is crucial. Candidates can showcase their proficiency in data collection, analysis, and interpretation, providing evidence of their research capabilities.

Example: A candidate in sociology might describe their involvement in a qualitative research project, highlighting their skills in conducting interviews, thematic analysis, and contributing valuable insights to the research team.

B. Identifying Collaborative Opportunities

1. Networking with Potential Advisors: Aspiring Ph.D. candidates can proactively network with potential advisors by reaching out to them, attending departmental events, and expressing genuine interest in their research. Building these connections can lead to collaborative opportunities.

Example: An applicant interested in environmental policy might engage with a professor known for their work in this area, initiating a conversation about potential collaborations or expressing interest in contributing to ongoing research projects.

2. Participating in Interdisciplinary Initiatives:
Exploring interdisciplinary opportunities allows candidates to broaden their research scope and engage with diverse perspectives. This can be appealing to Ph.D. programs that value multidisciplinary approaches.

Example: A candidate in urban planning might highlight their participation in an interdisciplinary workshop where they collaborated with researchers from sociology, economics, and environmental science to address complex urban challenges.

C. Focusing on Research Potential and Future Plans

1. Crafting a Strong Research Statement:

A well-crafted research statement is a key component of the application. Applicants should clearly articulate their research interests, questions, and the potential impact of their work on the field, emphasizing the trajectory of their future research.

Example: An applicant in political science may outline their research statement, discussing their interest in studying the impact of policy changes on marginalized communities and how their work contributes to ongoing debates in the field.

2. Demonstrating Adaptability and Growth:
Acknowledging the evolving nature of research interests and showcasing a willingness to adapt and grow can be compelling. Discussing how past experiences have shaped future research goals demonstrates maturity and self-awareness.

Example: A candidate in psychology might reflect on how their initial interest in cognitive psychology has evolved to include a fascination with the intersection of psychology and technology, indicating adaptability and growth.

These strategies empower aspiring Ph.D. applicants to strategically position themselves as researchers with valuable experiences, collaborative potential, and a clear vision for their future contributions to academia.

Unlock Exclusive Access to the PhD Navigator Tool – for a Streamlined Research Experience for FREE!

Dear fellow researchers,

If you are a PhD research scholar or planning to pursue PhD, I understand the value of time in your PhD journey. That’s why I have organized my blog posts related to PhD meticulously, categorizing more than 100 articles into various stages of PhD (from planning of PhD to careers after PhD).

You can get this tool ABSOLUTELY FREE, by sending an email to [email protected] with the subject line “Subscribe: PhD Navigator Tool-1.0” By subscribing not only will you gain free access to this invaluable tool, but you’ll also receive regular updates on this tool and our blog’s latest insights, tips, and resources tailored for researchers.

You can also visit my all articles related to PhD in my PhD Section. Of course, theses articles are in random order as I have written them whenever I got new ideas.

Happy researching!

Best regards,

Dr Vijay Rajpurohit


In conclusion, the pursuit of a Ph.D. is a multifaceted journey that extends far beyond a mere tally of publications. As we have navigated through the essential considerations in this comprehensive guide, it is evident that the role of publications in Ph.D. applications is nuanced, with expectations varying across disciplines, institutions, and individual programs. The landscape is complex, yet rich with opportunities for aspiring candidates to showcase their research potential and embark on a successful academic trajectory.

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Dr. Vijay Rajpurohit
Author: Dr. Vijay Rajpurohit
Dr. Vijay Rajpurohit is a researcher in Computer Science. He loves to educate researchers and research scholars on Research Paper Writing, Thesis Writing, Research Grants, Patenting Research Work and the latest Research-related issues. You can reach him @ [email protected]